An important property of amino acids is their ability to polycondensate and form polymers in the form of polyamides, including peptides, proteins, nylon, nylon, enanth. From a certain class of amino acids (alpha-amino acids) are collected molecules of natural proteins. Let us have a look at the properties of amino acids.
In terms of production, among the compounds produced by biotechnological methods, amino acids are in the first place, and in terms of cost, in second place, second only to antibiotics.
The volume of world production of amino acids is more than 500 thousand tons per year.
- Of these, 300 thousand tons.
- Monosodium glutamate, 100 thousand tons.
- Lysine, 140 thousand tons.
However, these volumes are only a small part of the required.
According to the WHO, the global need for the most demanded amino acids is:
- Lysine – 5 million tons
- Methionine – 4 million tons
- Threonine – 3.7 million tons
- Tryptophan – 2 million tons
About amino acids as a structural unit of proteins
Essential Amino Acids (for humans):
- Valine – 14 mg / kg
- Histidine – 10
- Isoleucine – 12
- Leucine – 16
- Lysine – 12
- Methionine – 10
- Cysteine - 10
- Phenylalanine – 16
- Tyrosine – 16
- Threonine – 8
- Tryptophan – 3
The lack of each of them in the diet leads to metabolic disorders, slowing growth and development.
- Nutritional value of protein is determined by the proportion of essential amino acids in food when compared with the same indicator with adequate nutrition. The most comparable to the ideal are proteins of milk and eggs.
- Proteins of plant origin are characterized by a deficiency of some essential amino acids. Thus, wheat and rice proteins are depleted in lysine and threonine, and maize proteins are lysine and tryptophan.
- The introduction of essential amino acids in feed concentrates allows you to balance the feed farm animals. Adding 3-4 deficient amino acids to 1 ton of feed to the ration leads to a 15-20% decrease in the total feed consumption. The output of products increases by 20%. Thus, enrichment of feed with essential amino acids is very beneficial.
In addition to using as food additives, dietary supplements (dietary supplements), seasonings and flavor enhancers, amino acids are used as raw materials in the chemical, perfume and pharmaceutical industries and in the production of other substances:
- glycine – as a sweetener, antioxidant, bacteriostatic,
- aspartic acid – flavor enhancer, raw material for the synthesis of aspartame (sweetener),
- histidine – anti-inflammatory agent,
- glutamic acid – flavor enhancer, a drug for the treatment of mental illness,
- methionine – food and feed additive,
- threoninine tryptophan – food and feed additive,
- tryptophan – food and feed additive,
- cysteine - a pharmaceutical preparation,
- phenylalanine – raw materials for the production of aspartame,
Lysine – food and feed additive, raw materials for the production of artificial fibers and films.